Grammar notes

Nouns  - person, place, thing, idea
concrete or abstract
proper or common
possessive nouns -> 's

Personal pronouns - words that take the place of a noun
1st person - I, me, we, us (my, mine, our, ours)
2nd person - you (your, yours)
3rd person - he, him, she, her, it, they, them (his, her, hers, its, their, theirs)

Antecedent -> the word being replaced

The boy went to his school.
Mr. Bigglesworth meowed from his bed.
I realized I was pregnant and didn't need to get pregnant anymore.
Mr. Fabio looks smashing in his new shades.
The unicorns and chinchillas waged a battle royale, before the sloths vanquished everyone involved in their war.
Andreana and the class looked puzzled as they took notes on pronouns."
Savannah, Allen, and I were fighting on a trampoline when our collective weight tore a hole in the trampoline as we tumbled to the ground.

 
Reflexive - reflects action on the subject, adds information

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Donna prepared herself for a long day.

Intensive - emphasize the subject

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

The wait itself would take hours.

 Demonstrative - points out the subject 

this, that, those, these

The people at the front of the line will get better tickets than those at the end.

 Interrogative - asks a question

who, whom, whose, which, what

What
is your favorite color? 

Indefinite - no antecedent and no specific reference
another, anybody, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, something, both, few, many, several, all, any, more, most, none, some

Several of the pregnant men waited anxiously in line.

 
Relative - relates one part of the sentence to another.

who, whom, which, that, whose
The man whom I almost hit last night works in this shop.
One country that I'd like to visit is Djibouti.

Verbs - express an action, a condition, or a state of being

Action -> jump, run, swim, write operas, spot an action verb 

Transitive - verb that "takes" an object. Ask yourself "whom?" or "what?"
If it can't be answered, then it's intransitive.

I carried Christian off the football field. - transitive
Miranda wrote an opera about Brandon's awesome swimming skills. - transitive
Exhausted from my hike on Mount Everest, I sank (intransitive) into the couch to watch (transitive) football.
I hiked on Mount Whoops. - intransitive

Linking verbs -> forms of "to be" - deal with conditions

is, am, are, was, were, been, being
Links subject of sentence to a word in predicate.

The instruments are safe on the bus. 

Verbs that express conditions - physical senses (linking)
look, smell, feel, sound, taste, grow, appear, become, seem, remain
To test, replace the verb with a form of "to be"

Miranda's opera sounds awesome. -> Miranda's opera is awesome.
Christian's apple pie tasted fantastic. -> Christian's apple pies were fantastic.
I tasted the spicy soup. -> I am the spicy soup. (tasted is in this sense is an action only and not a linking verb)  

Helping verbs -> combine with action verbs to form verb phrases.
Common helping verbs - be, can, have, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would
When you see these verbs paired with another verb, you'll have a verb phrase.

This stadium is filled with lots of people. Verb phrase=is filled
Miranda may write an opera. Verb phrase=may write
Rodrigo can sing an opera. Verb phrase=can sing
Bree should sit silently with her classmates. Verb phrase=should sit 

Adjective - describes noun or pronoun
What kind? Famous song, squeaky noise, green light
Which one? This star, that way, these words
How many? One dollar, three tenors, several years
How much? Some music, more room, less energy 

Articles - a, an, the
1) Indefinite - a, an
2) Definite - the

Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns
Portugal -> Portugese
Egypt -> Egyptian
North America -> North American